It is completely possible to get your industries to produce. One of my oil wells produces 400 units annually. I transport the oil to a refinery via a 10 car train, from there I have 3 goods supply lines to 3 separate cities.
From what I understand its all about supply and demand, and raw material industries have a ‘contract’ with the oil refineries / steel mills etc. So an oil well will not supply more oil than a refinery requires to produce its demand in goods, that means unless you distribute the goods effectively the refinery wont increase production no matter how long your train is or how quickly it delivers the material
This is how i understand it, feel free to correct me if i’m wrong